Functional Dysphonia (FD)

What is Functional Dysphonia and why get a massage for FD.

The voice condition Spasmodic Dysphonia is defined as a momentary disruption of the voice caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (or voice box). The term spasmodic dysphonia loosely means bad voice caused by spasms of the larynx. This description of the voice problem makes no assumptions about the cause.

The American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) and many doctors say there can be several causes of spasmodic dysphonia. The National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association, however, holds that spasmodic dysphonia by definition is a focal dystonia, an incurable neurologic disorder probably caused by a malfunction of the basal ganglia portion of the brain.

File:Basal Ganglia and Related Structures.svg


There is no diagnostic test for spasmodic dysphonia, regardless of the suspected cause. Based on how the voice sounds, doctors have described two types: adductor, where the vocal folds close too tightly, and abductor, where the vocal folds do not close completely. While much is written about the different types, both problems are an imbalance of airflow and vocal cord vibration. (see the rest of this article at


The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or “habits” such as bruxism, eye movements, cognitive,[1] and emotional functions.[2] Currently, popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time.[1][3] Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The “behavior switching” that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.[2][4]

The main components of the basal ganglia are the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens, and the subthalamic nucleus.[5] The largest component, the striatum, receives input from many brain areas but sends output only to other components of the basal ganglia. The pallidum receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function. The subthalamic nucleus receives input mainly from the striatum and cerebral cortex and projects to the globus pallidus. Each of these areas has a complex internal anatomical and neurochemical organization.

The basal ganglia play a central role in a number of neurological conditions, including several movement disorders. The most notable are Parkinson’s disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and Huntington’s disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum.[1][5] Basal ganglia dysfunction is also implicated in some other disorders of behavior control such as Tourette syndrome, hemiballismus, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Wilson’s disease.

The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area. There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning, particularly a pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine. A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is also evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia. From Wikipedia

more good info :

With A Quick Throat Massage, A Voice Returns by Gretchen Cuda


640 muscles of the human body

PRO Massage by Nicola. LMT
PRO Massage by Nicola. LMT

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